✅when the analysis is concerned with testing a theoretical framework from a prediction perspective;

✅when the structural model is complex and includes many constructs, indicators and/or model relationships;

✅when the research objective is to better understand increasing complexity by exploring theoretical extensions of established theories (exploratory research for theory development);

✅when the path model includes one or more formatively measured constructs;

✅when the research consists of financial ratios or similar types of data artifacts;

✅when the research is based on secondary/archival data, which may lack a comprehensive substantiation on the grounds of measurement theory;

✅when a small population restricts the sample size (e.g. business-to-business research); but PLS-SEM also works very well with large sample sizes;

✅when distribution issues are a concern, such as lack of normality; and

✅when research requires latent variable scores for follow-up analyses.

*How to interpret output and test a structural hypothesis using beta, p-value, R-square, and f-square. *

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How to validate a reflective measurement model, includings tests for convergent and discriminant validity and reliability.*

The results of the PLS-SEM algorithm and the bootstrap procedure include the direct, the total indirect effect, the specific indirect effects, and the total effect.

How to run and interpret a measurement invariance test via permutation analysis and MICOM, and then how to check multigroup comparisons at the structural level.

How to run a complex PLS-SEM model with a higher order construct that is both formative and endogenous. This is done in two stages by leveraging latent variable scores and the repeated indicator approach.

CORRECTION Reflective higher order endogenous factor model

How to test for common method bias in SmartPLS 4 using the full collinearity approach via VIFs.

How to conduct a confirmatory tetrad analysis to determine whether a factor should be specified as formative or reflective.

Explain and demonstrait an importance performance map analysis in SmartPLS 4.

Explain and demonstrate PLS Predict in SmartPLS 4.

Make some sense of FIMIX analysis in SmartPLS 4.

How to do a common method bias test in SmartPLS 4 using the VIF collinearity approach with a random dependent variable.

How to do a moderation analysis with interactions.

Demonstrate the Regression modeling option in SmartPLS 4

Demonstrate a complex, moderated mediation model with controls and with non-linear quadratic effects, in the PROCESS emulator in SmartPLS 4

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