SmartPLS is a software application for the design of structural equation models (SEM) on a graphical user interface (GUI). These models can be measured with the method of partial least squares (PLS)-analysis.

Some highlights available in SmartPLS4

Endogeneity assessment usign the Gaussian copula approach.

Necessary condition analysis (NCA) including significance testing

Path analysis, PROCESS and Regression models

Multiple moderation (e.g., three-way interactions)

Accounting for scale type of variables in most algorithms

Standardized, unstandardized and mean-centered PLS-SEM analysis

When to Use PLS-SEM

Researchers should select PLS-SEM:

✅when the analysis is concerned with testing a theoretical framework from a prediction perspective;

✅when the structural model is complex and includes many constructs, indicators and/or model relationships;

✅when the research objective is to better understand increasing complexity by exploring theoretical extensions of established theories (exploratory research for theory development);

✅when the path model includes one or more formatively measured constructs;

✅when the research consists of financial ratios or similar types of data artifacts;

✅when the research is based on secondary/archival data, which may lack a comprehensive substantiation on the grounds of measurement theory;

✅when a small population restricts the sample size (e.g. business-to-business research); but PLS-SEM also works very well with large sample sizes;

✅when distribution issues are a concern, such as lack of normality; and

✅when research requires latent variable scores for follow-up analyses.

How do I start the Data Analysis using SMARTPLS4?

SmartPLS 4: Testing structural hypotheses

How to interpret output and test a structural hypothesis using beta, p-value, R-square, and f-square. 

SmartPLS 4: Validating a (reflective) measurement model

How to validate a reflective measurement model, includings tests for convergent and discriminant validity and reliability.

SmartPLS 4: Serial and Specific Indirect Effects (Mediation)

The results of the PLS-SEM algorithm and the bootstrap procedure include the direct, the total indirect effect, the specific indirect effects, and the total effect.

SmartPLS 4: MICOM Measurement invariance and MGA Multigroup Analysis

How to run and interpret a measurement invariance test via permutation analysis and MICOM, and then how to check multigroup comparisons at the structural level.

SmartPLS 4: Formative higher order endogenous factor model

How to run a complex PLS-SEM model with a higher order construct that is both formative and endogenous. This is done in two stages by leveraging latent variable scores and the repeated indicator approach.

SmartPLS 4: Reflective higher order endogenous factor model

CORRECTION Reflective higher order endogenous factor model

SmartPLS 4: Common Method Bias

How to test for common method bias in SmartPLS 4 using the full collinearity approach via VIFs.

SmartPLS 4: Confirmatory Tetrad Analysis (formative or reflective determination)

How to conduct a confirmatory tetrad analysis to determine whether a factor should be specified as formative or reflective.

SmartPLS 4: Importance Performance Map Analysis

Explain and demonstrait an importance performance map analysis in SmartPLS 4.

SmartPLS 4: PLS Predict

Explain and demonstrate PLS Predict in SmartPLS 4.

SmartPLS 4: FIMIX (Finite Mixture Analysis)

Make some sense of FIMIX analysis in SmartPLS 4. 

SmartPLS 4: Common Method Bias with Random Dependent Variable

How to do a common method bias test in SmartPLS 4 using the VIF collinearity approach with a random dependent variable.

SmartPLS 4: Interaction Moderation with Simple Slopes Plot

How to do a moderation analysis with interactions.

SmartPLS 4: Regression Modeling

Demonstrate the Regression modeling option in SmartPLS 4

SmartPLS 4: PROCESS emulator with quadratic nonlinear effects, controls, and moderated mediation

Demonstrate a complex, moderated mediation model with controls and with non-linear quadratic effects, in the PROCESS emulator in SmartPLS 4

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